1. Oral motor and Oral sensory programs- This therapy is used to help a child with oral motor problems and uses various kinds of stimulation for the same.
Why is this therapy given to children?
This therapy is mostly given for children with disorders like Cerebral Palsy, Down syndrome, Developmental delays, etc. This therapy is also used along with the speech therapy so that specific movements needed for speech and feeding are targeted.
It targets the speech disorders faced by the child like Apraxia of the voice, voice disorders, It is also used to target children who are facing placement and movement deficits.
Benefits of this therapy-
This therapy is used to improve the awareness of the articulator (The mouth, tongue, etc.)
This therapy is used to improve the stability of the muscles along with their memory
It can be used not only with Children, but also with clients of other age group
It can also be used to improve the clarity of speech of the child
2. Speech therapy-
This is a type of therapy which is used to treat children with different kinds of misarticulation problems along with speech fluency problems. It also treats children with expressive and receptive speech problems.
Main Focus of speech therapists-
Non-verbal communication- The therapists play a major role in improving the non-verbal communication of the child which includes the usage of gestures to improve non-verbal communication.
Body language- The therapist helps the child to recognize subtle physical signals which will help the child to know how to act in certain situations.
Articulation of the words- There are some words which are most commonly misarticulated by the child due to which the speech therapist might help the child in proper articulation of those words.
Conversation skills- The speech therapists help the child to develop the conversation skills which will help the child in carrying forward the conversations with others. The speech therapists might help the child focus on back-and-forth attention which helps in establishing joint attention.
Benefits of speech therapy-
The child will be able to communicate effectively with others and the child might not face any kind of criticism.
The child will be able to form relationships with others and will also be able to function in day-to-day life.
This therapy will help the child in proper articulation of the words.
The child will be able to develop proper communication skills and will be able to communicate effectively with other people.
3. Language therapy-
This therapy is for those children who face communication and language problems and are also unable to express themselves as well as receive what the other person is trying to convey.
The language therapist will mostly use Language intervention activity, which involves constantly talking with the child.
It also involves the use of Books, objects and the surrounding events that are taking place. This plays a major role in communication development of the child.
When the child uses the wrong type of language, the therapist helps by correcting him/her. The therapist is also playing a major role in repetition and correction of the vocabulary which helps in language development of the child.
Children with problems like cognitive delays, weak oral muscles, impairments, etc. will need this kind of therapy.
This therapy will help the child in the following ways-
- It will enable the child to communicate effectively.
- It will help the child understand what the other person is speaking.
- The child will be able to understand the gestures used by other people for communicating.
- The child will be able to make new friends in his/her school.
4.Social Communication Program-
Social communication therapy is used to support children who struggle to use their language in a socially appropriate manner. Social communication therapy can be used to increase children’s understanding and compliance of the unwritten rules of social language.
Social communication disorder (SCD) is characterized by persistent difficulties with the use of verbal and nonverbal language for social purposes. Primary difficulties may be in social interaction, social understanding, pragmatics, language processing. Social communication behaviors such as eye contact, facial expressions, and body language are influenced by sociocultural and individual factors.
Some examples of behaviors affected by SCD include
using appropriate greetings;
changing language and communication style based on setting or partner;
telling and understanding stories;
engaging in conversation (e.g., initiating or entering a conversation, topic maintenance, turn-taking, responsivity, providing the right amount of information);
repairing communication breakdowns (e.g., rephrasing when misunderstood);
using appropriate verbal (e.g., prosodic features) and nonverbal (e.g., gestures) signals to regulate interactions;
interpreting the verbal and nonverbal signals of others during an interaction
understanding ambiguous or figurative language;
making inferences (understanding information that is not explicitly stated); and
forming and maintaining close relationships.
Causes- The causes of SCD as a primary diagnosis are unknown. SCD is often defined in terms of the specific condition with which it is associated.
Intervention is designed to
capitalize on strengths and address weaknesses related to underlying functions that affect social communication;
facilitate the individual’s activities and participation in social interactions by helping them acquire new skills and strategies; and
modify contextual factors that serve as barriers and enhance facilitators of successful communication and participation.